Mass incarceration has a far-reaching impact when an estimated 70 million, 1 in 3, adults have a criminal record. The impact of mass incarceration is exacerbated due to collateral consequences. Collateral consequences can be defined as hidden sanctions which emerge automatically at the onset of a criminal conviction. They are referred to as “hidden” because they are not formally quantifiable in a sentence or imposed penalty. Due to the disproportionate rate in which African-Americans are incarcerated, collateral consequences have a profound impact by limiting access to jobs, professional licensure, and restricting access to the ladder of economic mobility.
Tyner, Artika Renee and Fry, Dr. Darlene
"Iron Shackles to Invisible Chains: Breaking the Binds of Collateral Consequences,"
University of Baltimore Law Review: Vol. 49
, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarworks.law.ubalt.edu/ublr/vol49/iss3/4