Sam was born a happy and healthy baby boy, much to the delight of his mothers, Sarah and Jen. Although Jen gave birth to Sam, Jen has no genetic connection to her son. Biologically, Sarah is Sam's "ova mother"' because Sam was conceived through assisted reproductive technology using Sarah's ovum that was fertilized in vitro by an anonymous sperm donor and implanted in Jen. Both Sarah and Jen share a biological connection to Sam, Sarah through DNA and Jen through carrying him for nine months and giving birth. Consequently, Sam has two biological mothers. Yet, in Maryland, at the time of Sam's birth only Jen is legally recognized as his mother.
"Comment: The Case of Two Biological Intended Mothers: Illustrating the Need to Statutorily Define Maternity in Maryland,"
University of Baltimore Law Review: Vol. 42
, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholarworks.law.ubalt.edu/ublr/vol42/iss2/7