University of Baltimore Journal of International Law


Jennifer Bowman


International adoption has been lauded and derided by the public since its initial surge into popularity following the Second World War. While international adoptions are regulated by numerous legal instruments (international and domestic), problems of gender discrimination, exploitation, and human trafficking are widespread and systemic. This article examines the impacts of the circumspection of women’s rights generally and women’s reproductive rights on international adoption. Ultimately this article argues that foreign policy initiatives promoting women’s reproductive freedoms economic empowerment would mitigate the problematic features of international adoption and they would be an important step toward reducing adoption rates generally. This article will explore avenues through which the United States can advance these causes, by way of the available international legal institutions and agreements, in addition to its foreign policy activities.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.